R&D to Revenue

The R&D to Revenue metric is a financial ratio used to measure a company's R&D investment effectiveness in generating revenue. To calculate this ratio, a company's total R&D expenses are divided by its total revenue. The resulting percentage indicates the amount of revenue generated from R&D investment.

Investors and analysts often use the R&D to Revenue metric to assess a company's R&D efficiency and its ability to turn R&D investment into revenue growth. A high ratio is generally seen as a positive indicator of effective R&D investment, while a low ratio may suggest inefficient use of R&D investment.

However, it is important to note that this metric should not be used in isolation when evaluating a company's R&D investment. Other factors, such as the quality of R&D activities, the strength of the company's intellectual property portfolio, and the competitive landscape in the industry, should also be considered.


Apple's R&D to Revenue ratio for fiscal year 2021 was 8.7%, indicating that the company spent $8.70 on R&D for every $100 of revenue. While this ratio is relatively low compared to other tech companies, it reflects Apple's focus on optimizing its existing product line rather than investing in new technologies.